Backup Your Data. It’s Not As Tough As You Think

1 in 5 People Never Backup

According to the latest Backblaze survey, 21% of people have never made a backup of their files. The figures show a gradual increase in backups since 2008, but there’s still at least one in five people 🙋🙎🙎🙎🙎 that are risking total data loss. And more than half of the people surveyed had no recent backup.

Fortunately technology has changed a lot in the last few years. There are a whole host of  companies that offer free cloud storage. Large capacity, fast, and cheap external disks have also made backups at home easier. Software improvements in macOS and Windows have made backups automatic, so there’s really no excuse these days. Don’t wait until it’s too late!

A Quick Guide To Making Backups 📝

Identify the files you can’t live without. These might be a few spreadsheets, some word documents, your thesis, anything irreplaceable. These are the files you’d grab if there was a fire. Forget photos for now as I’ve tackled them separately below ⬇️. If these files are small, text or office documents, use something like dropbox or google drive to keep them synchronised in the cloud. An added bonus is this data will also be available on your other devices like iPads, iPhones or other computers. These cloud hosts give away a small amount of storage for free, so you might as well use it!

Photos deserve a bit of special attention here. Photos and videos are often the largest files for home-users, and will usually be well over the limits of free cloud storage. Fortunately both Apple’s iCloud and Google Photos can take care of them. Google Photos will take an unlimited number of photo uploads but limits the size of single files. The size limits are fair for most home users, especially if you just use a smartphone and not a fancy camera. Although not free, the price for extra iCloud storage is pretty reasonable too – £0.79 per month for 50GB at time of writing. If you are an iPhone user, the iCloud option has other benefits like device backups, data sharing with Macs, iCloud Keychain etc.

Once you have one of these options set up, it’s a good idea to keep an eye on it for a while and make sure the files are being copied over. You can login to all of these services from a computer and have a look at the files stored on there.

The Whole Hog™ Whole Hog

Now you’ve sorted the important stuff, It’s probably worth going the whole hog and also making a local backup. Don’t worry, it’s not difficult, and once you’ve set it up, you hardly have to think about it again.

Mac Users 🍎

If you plug in a new hard drive, macOS will ask if you want to use it with Time Machine. BEWARE that this will usually ERASE the disk and DELETE any data that’s on it! If that’s what you’re trying to do, click YES! Time Machine will then make a backup of your whole Mac. The first backup can take hours to finish so try to leave the computer on until it’s done. Once it’s finished, Time Machine will make regular backups as long as the disk is plugged in. These smaller backups just copy over new changes so don’t take so long.

Recent versions of Time Machine will happily make backups to multiple disks if you have them. You could keep another one in a safe or at work, and bring it back periodically to update itself. Time Machine will figure out where it left off, and fill in the gaps.

If your Internal disk ever fails, you can use the Time Machine backups to restore everything, including Applications and settings. You can also recover single files at any point if you ever need to.

Windows Users 💼

Windows 10 has an automatic backup process too. It’s a little buried inside the settings, but once it’s set you can (pretty much) forget about it. I find the fastest way is to click the “Start Orb” and type “backup” into the search box. You want to choose “Back up with File History”. This should take you into the File History page inside Settings. Click “Add a drive” and select your external drive. Windows will now keep extra copies of your data files on that disk. YThe default options will backup things like Photos and Documents, as long as you store them in the standard Windows folders (which you should always do anyway!).

File history will only save your data files, so if the computer fails, you’ll need to get it up and running again before you can load the files back on. It’s worth checking if you have the original disks, or even seeing if you can create rescue disks. (It depends on your system). The “Backup & Restore (Windows 7)” program allows for a full system backup, but in my experience, this process is much more prone to errors, and also takes a long time to complete the backups.

eBay Fake Capacity USB Sticks

Despite some amount of publicity, the problem of fake capacity flash drives being sold online has still not gone away. Recently we did a bit of consumer investigation and bought a few to test. Surely after two or three years eBay will have sorted this problem out?

eBay Fake Capacity USB Sticks

What Are Fake Capacity Flash Drives?

If you’ve not heard of these before, a fake capacity flash drive is simply a small low capacity flash drive pretending to have (much) more storage. The clever / devious part is that they may have only 16GB of real storage, but can appear to the computer as anything up to 2TB. You will be able to copy data to the device, but only the first 16GB may be readable later. Some devices constantly overwrite the same 16GB while other just dump the rest of the data into a back hole.

How Do I Know If My USB Drive is Fake?

There are not any strict rules, but you can start to build up a picture as you gather more information.

  1. Price – These flash drives will be WAY cheaper than anything you can buy in a retail store. We just bought 512GB flash drives for £10 and 1TB drives for £15. Currently a 64GB SD card is £32.48 at Novatech, so you can see how expensive real flash drives should be.
  2. Quality – Large capacity USB drives are relatively expensive. You’d expect them to be well made and probably well packaged. The fake drives usually come unbranded, in generic clear bags.
  3. Wording – Since these problems have been reported, some sellers are putting some disclaimers on the listings to suggest you should only use the devices for small amounts of data etc. This is obviously nonsense. If you buy a real 1TB of storage, you can use all 1TB.
  4. Testing – Although most people won’t be familiar with testing hardware, there are some pretty simple tools to test USB drives. They write patterns of data to the chosen device and then read it back again to make sure it was written correctly. USB Test Tool (It’s German, but also runs in English)

What To Do If You Have A Fake Capacity Flash Drive

Most online marketplaces like eBay have pretty robust buyer protection to allow you to claim a refund. The advice for making claims varies with each website so you may need to hunt around, or contact the site directly. Although eBay are more than happy to organise refunds, they show little interest in stopping the sale of these devices. We’ve spoken to eBay customer services a number of times and they said that their system will flag up if enough people make returns.

USB Stick

You Often Don’t Know Until It’s Too Late

It’s a bad idea to keep using one of these USBs. If you detect a fake capacity, you may think it’s OK to just use it for small amounts of data but it’s not a good idea. The problem is that as you use and delete files, you could gradually start edging towards the limit of the storage. The next file you write could just go into the black hole, and the data is lost. In fact, many people don’t realise their flash drive is a fake until they exceed the “genuine” part of the storage. If you were copying photographs to the USB drive, you might not notice that some of them are missing until you try to read them again much later.

Not Just Memory Sticks

These same types of fake flash drives also appear as SD cards so we’ve heard from people that were at weddings or on their honeymoon and lost all or most of the photos.

Fake eBay USB Drive Animation

Update 31-10-2016: Since posting this, we were made aware of this report from the USA about eBay’s problem with fake flash storage.

SandForce SSD Data Recovery Problems

Mac Pro SSD

The low prices and high speed access of the Sandforce controller made it an appealing option for SSD manufacturers such as Toshiba, Intel, Kingston & OCX. But it soon became a problem for users when the SSD devices using these controllers started to fail in their computers after just six months of use. Usually it resulted in the device not being recognised by the computer bios, and not functioning at all.

That was okay if you were happy to have it replaced under warranty by the manufacturer. The problem came when you wished to try and recover critical data that may have been stored on these SSD’s. The use of full hardware encryption on the controller and the device, meant that the data could not be recovered, even when using low level data chip removal.

Fortunately today these controllers are not so popular, and as a result most mainstream manufacturers do not use them. But be aware that they can still be found in some non branded SSD’s.

Free Data Recovery

Hard Drive Data Recovery

Despite offering world-class data recovery from our workshop here in Portsmouth, we understand that sometimes, the data just doesn’t justify the cost of getting it recovered. If you’re going to go it alone and attempt a DIY recovery, we’ve got some handy tips to avoid making things worse. It might be a good idea to print this page to use as a reference. Also feel free to comment at the end of the post if you’d like any questions answered.

Stop Using Your Hard Drive

If you want to recover data, you can’t do it from the disk you want to recover from. When you boot up a computer it writes data to the hard drive. Even browsing the web or checking e-mails writes little cache files to the disk, potentially overwriting the files you want to recover.

Set Up

You ideally want to work from a different and reliable computer, have plenty of storage space for recovered files, and make sure everything is ready before you attach the faulty disk. You don’t always get a second chance with hard disks, so make sure you’re ready to grab the files if they appear.

Now You See Them

If you suddenly gain access to the files, copy them to another drive as soon as you can. The disk is unlikely to have repaired itself, so this might be the last chance to copy the data before if gives up completely. Take the most important files first. If the copy gets stuck, stop it straight away as the disk could be causing damage.

Watch The Clock

If you decide to try DIY recovery, keep a close eye on the time. If the estimated time keeps increasing it could be a sign of disk trouble. Failure to deal with that could cause the drive to fail completely, and beyond repair (even for us). As a guideline, it should take no longer than a few hours to copy a whole 1TB disk over USB 3.0. If your estimate says much more than that, or keeps going up in time, it could be the disk getting worse. Maybe try copying important files in small batches first. Data Recovery Time Remaining

Priorities

Your priority with a failed drive is either to make a copy of the disk, or copy off the files as soon as possible. Don’t try to scan, repair or fix any errors. A failed repair can completely damage your files beyond recovery. This means don’t ever use spinrite, diskwarrior, techtool, or any other diagnostic tool until after you’ve extracted the data. Some people report success with these tools, but it’s far safer to copy the data first, and run those tools later.

Restore or Reinstall?

Don’t re-install or restore the computer. At best it will overwrite some of the data. At worst it will overwrite all of the data and leave you with a factory-fresh (blank) version of Windows. If you’ve already done this, we can often get data back, but it won’t be as complete as a normal recovery.

Brrrr It’s Cold in Here

Never ever put a hard drive in the freezer. Although this trick is a common part of data recovery folklore, it is likely to do so much more damage than good. We have never used any type of freezing process for data recovery, and neither should you. Leaving your hard disk unplugged for a day is likely to be just as successful, and won’t risk contaminating the delicate disks and heads. Hard disks are not air-sealed so even if you put them in a sealed bag, they already have moist air inside them which can freeze and then cause condensation.

Stop Hitting Yourself

If you saw how delicate the inside of a hard disk was, you’d never consider hitting, tapping or knocking it. Even if you did manage to dislodge some stuck heads, you’ll probably either rip them off, or take a chunk of the disk with it. There are careful ways to remove stuck heads, but they cannot be done at home.

Keep it Together

Never dismantle a hard drive. This is a case when the “no user serviceable parts” label really is true. Not only are disk internals extremely delicate, they have an air filter in the cover to stop particles getting inside the disk. If you remove the cover, all sorts of dust and lint can get in. Dust particles are bigger than the gap between heads & disks, so they can cause the heads to crash into the disks and scrape off the magnetic coating. Once the coating is gone, the data is gone.

Good Luck

If you decide to try DIY data recovery, good luck, and be careful. If you’d rather let us look at the disk instead, get in touch.

OWC Mercury Elite Pro Qx2: Data Recovery

OWC Mercury Elite Pro Qx2
OWC Mercury Elite Pro Qx2

This OWC external enclosure is a common sight on the desks of Mac users with big storage needs. It’s a pretty standard 4-bay box, styled somewhat like a cousin of a PowerMac G5 or 1st generation Mac Pro. Inside are the usual options of RAID 0 to RAID 5 with a few additions like JBOD & RAID 10 thrown in for good measure. There are a few variations of this device but the back panels commonly have USB, Firewire, and eSATA ports for direct connection to a PC or Mac. There is no ethernet port on these drives which makes the Qx2 a DAS (Direct Attached Storage) rather than NAS (Network Attached Storage).

Aside from massive name, the OWC Mercury Elite Pro Qx2 also comes with a potentially huge amount of storage. Currently up to 32TB on the OWC store, but also available diskless or BYOD (Bring your own disks). With so much storage space, these drives often become the one and only repository for vast lumps of important data. The benefits of RAID give a false sense of security that the data is safe from drive failures. Unfortunately, there are a number of reasons why the RAID array alone will not protect from certain failures. Most of  these failures can be overcome by us in our workshop, but they are not one-button fixes. It is helpful to understand why a seemingly rock-solid platform can be even more risky than a simple external USB drive.

Redundancy

Under common settings, the Qx2 will use RAID 5 for the array. With four 2TB drives this gives you a 6TB volume on a Mac or ~5.5TB on a PC[1], and can cope with a single disk failure. There is a lot of debate about how good RAID 5 really is for such large drives[2]. In our example this means that if a single disk fails, it will need to be replaced, and then the new disk rebuilt with 2TB of data calculated from the other disks. This will take many hours, even under optimal conditions, but if anything goes wrong before it completes the array could stop showing up all together. At this stage, the data is probably recoverable but don’t panic. One wrong move and the data could be gone for good.

If the data is crucial then get assistance from a RAID recovery service now and you should get back all or most of the data.

If any disks are removed or replaced at this point the array could get reinitialised and either make the recovery more complicated or wipe the data completely.

Other Failures

Aside from all the problems with a RAID setup, the volume could also fail in the same ways that a standard hard drive can. There could be deleted files, a reformatted or corrupt partition, or even the RAID controller failure. RAID cannot protect against those types of failure at all.

Recovery

Our first step would be making read-only copies of each disk in the array. This protects against further disks failing, and also allows us to work from copies without risking the original disks. In fact, once the disks are copied, we put the originals to one side and don’t touch them again until all the data is recovered and supplied back to the user.

Once we have our copies, they are loaded into our own hardware where we recreate the RAID in a virtual environment. Again, we don’t use the original hardware, as that may have been the root cause of the problem.

When the virtual RAID has been loaded and all the data extracted, the files are supplied back on whatever alternative storage is suitable, (not the original device!) Once the data has been delivered to the user, and backups made, the old unit can then be destroyed, or returned and reused.

Avoidance

Anyone using RAID on a regular basis should know that RAID is not a replacement for backups. If anything, the increased number of disks makes failure more likely. This needs to be addressed by either making backups to another device, or an online service (preferably both). You ideally want backups that keep historic versions of the files, so that inadvertently deleting a file or changing a file by mistake will not also replace the backup version.

If you are having problems with an OWC Mercury Elite Pro Qx2, give us a call or send a message via the form on this page. We give free advice and could help you avoid permanent data loss.

1. Macs now use 1000 bytes for 1KB but PCs use 1024 bytes.

2. Even RAID 6 does not solve the long time required to rebuild a disk, even though it allows for two disk failures.

Data Recovery from Fire Damaged Hard Drives

Data Recovery from Fire Damaged Hard Drives
Fire Damaged Hard Drives

Following a fire at a science lab, five hard drives had sustained damage. Although hard drives often survive a fire, they can sometimes be damaged more by the water used to bring the blaze under control. Fortunately for the lab involved, somebody had managed to extract the hard disks from the scene and quickly bag them. It is critical to work fast with fire and water damage, before corrosion takes hold.

The lab have been using our data recovery services since 2005 so the technical department knew exactly where to send the disks.

Cleaning and Decontamination

Data Recovery from Fire Damaged Hard Drives
Data Recovery from Fire Damaged Hard Drives

To maximise the chances of recovery, we have a strict procedure for fire and water damaged disks. First the outside covers of the drives are cleaned of any loose soot and all electronic components are labelled and removed. The hard drive carcases then get thoroughly cleaned and inspected for signs of water ingress or damage to the protective seals. If the damage has transferred inside the drive then it will be taken into our cleanroom for internal decontamination and cleaning. The electronic parts of the disks are dealt with separately. First they are dusted of loose debris, and then immersed in a chemical bath. This removes contaminants from any connectors or contact surfaces, and also helps remove anything that could cause the electronics to malfunction when powered on. The circuit boards are then dried and tested for faults before being reattached to the hard drives.

Recovery

Once cleaning and decontamination is complete, the drives are reassembled and attached to an imaging machine. The drives are copied as fast as possible, as they may have been exposed to temperatures outside of their specified design. This process means that each sector is only read a single time and then the disk is powered off and returned to storage. We are then free to work on the copies. It is part of our standard data recovery procedure, but all the more important in this case.

Success

Our strict and thorough process for fire and water damaged drives meant that we had a 100% success rate from these drives. Failure to follow any part of the process could have meant the difference between the data being recovered or not.

Fire Damage Data Recovery

We Recovered a Western Digital Hard Drive That Others Couldn’t

We Recovered a Western Digital Hard Drive That Others Couldn't

Case Study

Drive: WD3200AAJS-40RYA0
Problem: Clicking. Diagnosed by multiple third parties as unrecoverable.

This hard drive has travelled the globe and had been looked at by various data recovery companies, eventually landing on the desk of our data recovery partner in Amsterdam. Our partner then asked us if we were up for a challenge and explained to us that the last data recovery company to look at the drive in Portugal had given up with no success.

Third Party Feedback

We got in contact with the company in Portugal and they explained to us that they had tried mechanical and firmware repair, but both did not overcome the problem.

Booking In

Once the drive was booked into our process, it was clear that the warranty seals had been removed and the top cover had been previously opened. Therefore we needed to take the hard drive straight into our clean room to check for any media damage and also to confirm that the mechanics of the drive had been rebuilt correctly.

Findings

We found no cause for concern in the clean room examination. The drive appeared to be clean and was correctly rebuilt. We replaced the internal heads with a new set as a matter of course and rebuilt the drive and then moved to the next stage of our process. The drive was then powered up on our proprietary equipment and an extensive firmware check and fix process was carried out. Perseverance was the key to overcoming the firmware corruption. It was apparent that a lot of the original firmware had been totally overwritten and a lot of painstaking work was done over the next few weeks to rebuild the firmware to eventually allow the drive to come ready.

Imaging

Once it was established that we could access the data area of the drive, it was put into a block level head map imaging process. This allowed us to control the drive and to further stabilise it by imaging each disk surface individually. Once this process was complete a file extraction was carried out on the image to reveal the original folder and file structure.

Result

The image process was a complete success and resulted in over 190GB of data recovered. A  folder and file structure list was sent to the customer, who acknowledged saying that all the data had been recovered.

Once again we were able to test ourselves against our competition, all be it in Portugal.  In this case the customer was fortunate to seek advice from our data recovery partner in Amsterdam who recommended us. We can’t help but wonder how many people are told that their data is lost for ever, without the thought of getting a second opinion.

If you need data recovery from a similar hard drive, you may be interested in our Western Digital Data Recovery Services.

How To Ruin Your Chances Of Data Recovery

No Chance Data Recovery

Maybe the title is a bit harsh, but in the past week I have seen an unusually high number of hard drives ruined by avoidable problems. There is nothing more frustrating than knowing the data would have been recoverable if  the hard drive hadn’t been tampered with first.

Manufacturing

Hard drives are manufactured in a controlled environment. Staff wearing white overalls,  gloves, and masks, control machines which are carefully organised to prevent contamination getting inside the hard drive.

Clean Room

To prevent contamination when repairing the inside of a hard drive, it is necessary to use a cleanroom. This is a specially designed system that filters the air and keeps airborne particles to a minimum. A cleanroom is the only safe way to open a hard drive. We have one of these, which allows us to carry out the most intricate repairs without any risk of particle damage.

Damage

Before opening a hard drive for internal rework, it is crucial to confirm that there is an internal mechanical problem in the first place. For instance, our data recovery process has numerous tests we can carry out before we confirm that the problem is under the hood. Only then will we open the top cover and check for damage inside. Unlike CDs or DVDs, the internal disks of a hard drive are not designed to come into contact with normal air. Even a fingerprint could mean the difference between a successful or unsuccessful recovery. If you slip with a screwdriver then forget it.

The numbers

On a percentage basis of all the failed drives we receive (hundreds per year), we only need to go to the cleanroom with around 10%. There are likely to be far less intrusive ways into the data without ever taking off the top cover.

Even if…

I’ve lost count of the number of times I’ve been told, “It’s an internal fault. The heads are clicking.” Although some drives will click as a symptom of failed heads, there are so many other reasons to cause a drive to click that it is not a reliable way to diagnose problems.

Reasons a hard drive will click

  • Electronic fault
  • Firmware fault
  • Bad sectors
  •  Weak (but not completely failed) heads
  • Problems reading partition info

All of the problems above can be overcome without ever unscrewing the top cover. In fact, removing the top cover will only introduce more doubt to the diagnosis. If the top cover is removed outside of a cleanroom, then not only do the above problems need to be solved, but also new problems of contamination and possibly damage by tools.

(Don’t) Get the discs out

Another common wrong diagnosis is to take the disc pack from one drive and place it into a donor drive. Although this is a correct course of action for some drives, there are some serious implications. First, when the disc pack is built it is clamped together onto the spindle motor. This alignment is so crucial that if you remove one disc at a time, you will never be able to regain this alignment. This was true 20 years ago when the magnetic data was nowhere near as densely packed. Rotate the discs a fraction of a millimetre and you can wave goodbye to all the files.

It is also the case that most of the hard drive firmware is now stored on the discs, so moving them to a new donor will not help if the fault is firmware based.

Advice

If you are even considering a destructive course of action, at least get some professional advice first. You don’t need to follow the advice, but at least it gives somebody (maybe me) the option to give a warning. You don’t want to find out later that the data would have been simple to recover, if only…

2TB Western Digital 2nd Opinion

Hard Drive Data Recovery

Case Study

Drive: WD20EARS-00MVWB0
Problem: Clicking. Previously diagnosed by a third party as unrecoverable due to media damage.

We are always keen to test our services against our competitors, just to make sure we’re still up there with the best of them. When we heard from one of our service partners (ABC Rawpaw) that one of the top ranking data recovery companies on Google had given up on a customer’s drive, we were curious to take a look. It’s also worth mentioning that the client had paid £234 to the other company, despite them recovering no data.

Third party report

We received a copy of the original diagnosis report with the hard drive. The report mentioned incorrect head alignment and also damage to the head assembly preventing the drive from functioning correctly. It also stated that they had subsequently replaced the old heads with new ones but due to suspected disc damage, recovery was unsuccessful. A plausible enough report, but was it accurate?

Booking in

The drive was booked into our process. We noted that the warranty seals had been removed and the top cover showed signs of being previously opened. Whenever we receive a drive in this state, we always want to make sure the drive has been rebuilt correctly. We need to do this in our cleanroom to prevent any contamination getting in from the air. Our office is clean, but it’s no place to open a hard drive.

Findings

The inside of the drive was examined in our cleanroom and found to be spotlessly clean. There were no signs of disc damage or particles, but we did notice that the screws were not factory-tight, suggesting previous work had taken place. Happy that there was nothing untoward inside the disk, it was rebuilt for further diagnosis. The drive was powered on and initially failed to reach a ready state. This is common for Western Digital drives as they often have firmware corruption. We used our proprietary firmware tools (and John’s keen knowledge) to repair some of the firmware area of the drive which then allowed the drive to reach a ready state and allow access by our imaging tools.

Imaging

We did find that one of the heads was not performing within spec, but we were able to work around this, again using specialist tools. After imaging the majority of the drive we replaced the heads to allow better access to the missing areas. This helped improve the amount of successfully recovered data.

Result

We ended up with over 800GB of data recovered from the drive in good condition, even though one of the biggest companies (according to Google) was unable to get anything! This is not the first time we’ve recovered data where others have failed, but we always wonder how many people give up on ever seeing their data again, even though it may be recoverable with the right knowledge.

In the end we had an extremely happy customer (and service partner), and were able to test ourselves against one of the biggest data recovery firms in the UK. A great result for us that shows the importance of getting a second opinion.

What To Do When You Run Out Of Space

It’s a common problem that as we generate more data each year we start running out of space to put it. This is now even more of an issue in the smartphone market, where built-in cameras are generating increasingly large photos and videos, without providing much in the way of additional storage. The most common iPhones are still 16 & 32GB but the photos they now produce can be megabytes in size, with videos easily reaching 1GB.

What To Do When You Run Out Of Space
What To Do When You Run Out Of Space

It’s tempting to take that data and put it somewhere else, so either a laptop or external hard drive. Then once you’ve copied it all you delete it from the phone and gain back all that space. Problem solved.

Not So Fast…
If that copy on your laptop is now the only copy, then you could be one spilt coffee from disaster. If the laptop goes up in smoke, gets stolen, dropped or any of the myriad other ways of failing then it’s bye bye data.

The Fix

The key to making backups is redundancy. The key to making backups is redundancy. The key to making backups is redundancy.

You need to make extra copies of your data to different types of storage. This could be an external hard drive, NAS, USB Pen, SD card, anything. But don’t just pick one of those. Make a few backups. Put one in a locked safe somewhere. Send photos off to the cloud. Store a copy of your music at your nan’s house. If any of those copies gets lost or broken you can just replace it with another copy.

So let’s run through an example. All those photos on your iPhone have filled it up. Here’s what I would do:

  1. Copy the photos to my computer. Check them.
  2. Backup the computer as usual. (You’re already doing that, right?)
  3. Make another backup, or copy the photos to an online storage service like Dropbox.
  4. Now it is safe to delete the photos from the iPhone and revel in all that fresh space.

Note: Deleted photo recovery is virtually impossible for all modern iPhone versions due to encryption. 

Here’s another example for when your computer runs out of space instead:

  1. Is it possible to upgrade the internal storage? If it is then you should do that.
  2. If this is not possible, or too expensive then you will have to get creative. It will be more fiddly but copy all data to two external hard drives.
  3. You always want to avoid just leaving your data in one place. All electronic devices can (and will) fail, and they have a terrible habit of doing so at the worst possible moment.

So, just remember that no single copy of your files are safe. Making extra copies is cheaper and easier than waiting until something fails.

Thanks to Alexander Armstrong for inspiring this post.